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Wine Glasses Supplementary Information

Table of contents
Style and Shape
Manufacturing wine glasses
Using wine glasses
Appropriate temperature of the wine glasses
Decanting wine
Cleaning wine glasses
Storing wine glasses
Style and Shape
A wine glass has three parts: a bowl, the upper part where the wine is filled, a stem, to be held at, and a foot to place it on the table.
There are many types of wine glasses in different sizes, ranging from sherry glasses (3.4oz) to big goblets for heavy Burgundy red wines offering a generous volume of (app. 25oz).
The following are the most popular wine glass shapes:
- Flat - like champagne saucers (Handle them with care as the champagne may be spilled out easily.)
- Round and narrow bottomed (The classic shape)
- Closed at the top of the bowl (To concentrate the aroma (or bouquet) of the wine to be sensed by the nose)
- The Römer goblet, is a typical German glass, having a thick wall and faceted stem.
Read more about wine glass types
Manufacturing wine glasses
Nowadays wine glasses are mostly manufactured with machines. A hot glass tube is introduced in a divisible mold and then high pressure air is blown in the tube which fills the mold perfectly from inside. The wall thickness of the wine glass is getting smaller with the diameter increasing as the mass of the glass is constant along the tube. The mold is divided and the hot machine-blown glass is taken out. There are cuts made on the upper part of the bowl in order to be able to break off the lid of the wine glass. The razor sharp mouth of the wine glass is made smooth by re-melting that part of the glass.
Machine made wine glasses can be recognized on the longitudinal welds on the stem and foot. To make the welds disappear from the bowl, which would mean a visual disaster, that part of the glass is reheated.
Handmade wine glasses are also manufactured with high pressure air, however the air does not come from a machine but from the lungs of a glassblower artisan. The glassblower uses a long and narrow tube-like pipe and forms the shape without a mold. The artisan has to concentrate on many factors ar the same time: the temperature of the glass, the shape of the glass bubble, the quantity of air required, the speed of air streaming from his lungs in the bubble. Exceptional skills and an experienced eye is needed to shape the perfect glass. This type of manufacturing is costly because a lot of 2nd quality glasses are produced that have to be destroyed. Mouthblown glasses are for these reasons more expensive than machine made ones. The material costs of mouthblown glasses play also an important role. The usual lead crystal glasses have a much higher material cost than conventional wine glasses.
Wine glasses are manufactured a wide circle of glass factories. The price of wine glasses begin from a few cents and reach above 100 USD per glass.
Materials used when manufacturing lead crystal wine glasses
Wineglasses 6f h5gh quality are always handmade of crystal, which is porous and lets the wine aerate.
The International Crystal Federation (ICF) drafted an expert’s report (study), which confirms, that there are no technically or scientifically substitutes for lead in crystalglass. The same was done by the Fraunhofer Institute Würzburg.
Only with lead in glass is it possible to get important properties as high refractive index (for brilliancy), high dispersion, high light transmission, no "grey" but sharp color transition, high density and the essential thermal (for melting and forming), mechanical (for cutting and polishing) and refinement (for silver coating) properties. Cadmium compounds are necessary to get a very special and pure red color with unique light absorption in glass. Without chromium (VI) it would be absolute impossible to melt several unique green colors in glass (because of the high melting temperatures in glass). But the so called Siam- Emerald- and Peridot colors are standards especially in the jewelry branch.
Using wine glasses
Wine glasses should not be filled by more than 50%. Instead of serving wine in a wine glass, one should rather use a stylish jug or wine decanter. The bouquet of the wine can only develop in a glass which offers enough airspace above the liquid.
The wine glass is leaned in the hand and budged with small circular movements in order to bring the wine in the bowl into movement. The drink should cover the inside walls of the glass. As the fine liquid evaporates from the walls it allows the human nose to experience the bouquet. A glass that is filled to a high level will not offer enough odor to be recognized by the nose. It is recommended to leave enough room in the glass to be able to tilt it at a forty-five degree angle to analyze the color of the wine.
Also the mouth of the glass will influence the taste experience of wine. It should be thin and perfectly polished. The rim of the wine glass should make it possible for the wine to flow quickly and spread evenly on the right parts of the tongue in the mouth. A small sip of wine should be enough to experience the different dimensions of the taste.
Appropriate temperature of the wine glasses
Wine glasses should have the same temperature that the wine served has. It is recommended to serve white wine at a temperature of 8C- 10C (46 F-50F), soft, light fruity red wines at about 15 C (59 F) and full bodied tannic red wines at 17C (62F). One should not expose wine glasses to direct sunlight before serving wine in them, they may warm up the wine inside, especially if the glass is thick-walled. If the wine glass is cooled to a far too low temperature the wall of the glass may get dewy if wine is poured inside.
This may limit the visual experience.
Decanting wine
In general it is advisable to serve wine in a decanter first, as with aging of the wine sediment is deposited at the bottom of the bottle. The aim of the decanting the wine is to leave the sediment in the bottle and introduce some air in the liquid, let it breathe, release its aromas. In case of old wines it is especially important to separate the sediment and ensure a clarity and brillance. An extensive description of wine decanters
Cleaning wine glasses
Wine glasses should be cleaned with a minimum amount of cleaning detergent and gently washed with warm water. Drying should be done with a cotton-cloth or a microphase cloth. At last wine glasses should be stored in a clean dry cupboard with the mouth opening facing downwards to avoid the dust deposited at the bottom of the glass.
Storing wine glasses
If the wine glasses are stored in a cupboard for longer time periods it is advisable to wash the glasses first with cold water to remove the marks of the resulting for the evaporation of the wooden cupboard. After that it is recommended to rinse the glasses with wine.
Wine glasses should by no means stored in muffy rooms where smoking is allowed. If a wine enthusiast is served wine in a unclean wine glass smelling of tobacco or washing detergent the tasting experience will be disappointing.

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